HPV causes a number of complications in human beings. These include:
- Common warts
- Genital warts
- Plantar warts
- Facial warts
- Pre-cancerous lesions of cervix, anus, penis, vulva, or uterus
- Cervical cancer and penile carcinoma
The diseases caused by HPV may lead to certain secondary conditions or disorders. These conditions are termed HPV complications. Most HPV viruses do not cause any serious complications, as the infections are self-limiting and regress spontaneously within a period of 1-2 years (in about 90 percent of patients). Only a small number of people suffer from persistent HPV infections and have increased risk of developing cancer.
HPV complications include:
- Cancer: Persistent HPV infections caused by high-risk types, mainly type 16 and 18, may progress into malignancies. The cancers caused by HPV are:
- Cervical Carcinoma (the most common complication associated with malignancies)
- Genital Carcinoma
- Vulvar Carcinoma
- Anal Carcinoma
- Penile Carcinoma (rare cancer)
HPV complications related to genital warts:
- Genital warts in the urinary tract may become enlarged leading to difficulties in urination.
- Warts on the vaginal wall may lead to obstruction during spontaneous vaginal delivery.
- Genital warts may become ulcerated.
- These can lead to infections of the rectum, anus, urethra and even mouth or throat.
- Laryngeal papillomatosis (warts in the throat) in newborns, born to women with genital warts. This rare condition requires urgent attention.